Yu the Great passed power to his son Qi, who established the first dynasty in Chinese history, with a territory centered around the Central Plain. Discoveries of a number of capital-scale cities and large-scale settlement sites in Henan demonstrate the scale and layout of an early royal capital, unveiling the mysterious history of Xia. In particular, the discovery of the Erlitou site and the Erlitou cultural sphere confirms that the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BC) established its capital in the Central Plain, highlighting the pivotal role of the Central Plain in the formative stage of early states.