'Two Mountains' theory: Definition and development in Huzhou | Updated: Sep 9, 2019

Huzhou, in the north of Zhejiang province, has long been known as the cradle of China's "Two Mountains" theory - in which clear waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, comparable to the gold and silver mountains of legend.

Development of the theory

Introspection and exploration (before 2005):

Huzhou successfully completed the task of Taihu Lake renovation and started rethinking the development model. In 2001, Anji county took the lead in exploring ways to build an ecological county.

Initiation (2005 – 2014):

The speech of "Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets" was given in Yucun village, Anji county on August 15, 2005. Huzhou established the goal of building a modern ecological lakeside city, intensifying environmental protection, developing green economy, creating an ecological city and building a beautiful countryside.

Rapid expansion (2014 - 2016):

Huzhou was approved as the first prefecture-level demonstration area of ecological civilization in China on May 30, 2014, indicating that the practice of "Two Mountains" theory in Huzhou has become a national strategy.

A new era of socialist ecological civilization (since 2016):

Huzhou held a national conference on promoting ecological progress on Dec 2, 2016, which greatly enhanced its reputation and influence. The city's ecological civilization construction has been of interest to many parties as a model that can be seen, learned from and duplicated, even as Huzhou enters a new stage of development.


Residential buildings harmonize with the natural surroundings in a village in Anji county, Huzhou. [Photo/IC]